New textbook with contributions from Skretting ARC
Together with a number of other prominent researchers, Grethe Rosenlund and Wolfgang Koppe have contributed to a textbook and reference book called "Fish Oil Replacement and Alternative Lipid Sources in Aquaculture Feeds", reports http://www.megafishnet.com/ with reference to Skretting.
"Fish Oil Replacement and Alternative Lipid Sources in Aquaculture Feeds" is intended to be a textbook for students and a reference book for people who work in the aquaculture industry. Giovanni M. Turchini, Wing-Keong Ng and Douglas R. Tocher have been the book's editors.
Vegetable oil produces just as good an end product
Grethe Rosenlund is the first author of the chapter entitled: "The Effects of Fish Oil Replacement on Nutritional and Organoleptic Qualities of Farmed Fish". Together with Geneviève Corraze, Marisol Izquierdo and Bente Torstensen, she has examined how feed containing vegetable oils affects the end product (the fish flesh). This chapter also contains a paragraph that highlights the positive health benefits of eating fish. In addition to information from scientific literature, the chapter has been based on findings from national and international research projects in which ARC has participated.
Among other things, the chapter reviews the effects of the feed oil on fatty acid composition, taste, text, odour, storage quality and the colour of the flesh.
"The main conclusion is that when you substitute fish oil with vegetable oils in the feed, this mainly affects the fatty acid composition, i.e., there will be less of the essential marine omega 3 fatty acids, but other positive health benefits will be maintained. Moreover, the supply of environmental toxins that stem from marine oils will be reduced. We have also found that the physical and sensory quality of the fish flesh is not affected to any great extent," Rosenlund explains.
Rosenlund emphasises that marine omega-3 fatty acids, such as EPA and DHA, are important in the diet, and this is why modern fish feed is formulated to maintain an adequate level of these essential fatty acids.
"But fish is far more than just omega-3 fatty acids. It is also a good source of vitamin D, which in turn is essential for absorption of calcium in the bones. Iodine and selenium are other important nutrients provided by fish. Recent research also indicates that fish protein contributes positively to inhibit the development of various lifestyle diseases. Fortunately, this does not change, if parts of the dietary fish oil are replaced with alternative fat sources, as long as we make sure that adequate omega-3-levels are maintained. Thus, frequent and regular fish dinners are a significant contribution to a healthy and balanced diet," Rosenlund says.
Some people might be a little surprised that in this digital age the editors have chosen to publish a reference book in hardcopy, but researcher Wolfgang Koppe at Skretting ARC believes the book will have a long life.
"Even though there is constantly new research in this area, this does not make the knowledge gathered in this book any less correct. This is basic knowledge and the hardcopy format makes the material more readily available. It is still quicker to read things on paper than on a screen," Koppe says.
Koppe has contributed to the book through the article: "Lipids in Aquafeeds", where J. Gordon Bell is the first author. Fellow ARC colleagues Ramon Fontanillas, Leo Nankervis and Jan Jonkers have also made contributions to the text. This chapter gives an overview of the functions and the origin of essential types of lipids used in fish feed and how they are structured. Furthermore, this chapter also discusses lipid digestibility and how it is affected by factors, such as temperature and fatty acid profile. Finally, challenges that use of various oils poses when producing fish feed and how these are dealt with in practice through formulas, production process and quality control, are also presented.
Koppe's contribution has been based on trials from Skretting ARC and previously published trials from public research centres. Koppe says that he took the responsibility of being a contributor to a textbook very seriously.
"Writing a text that is to be used in a textbook is one of the most demanding things a research can do. Students and others who use the textbook will regard the book as a source of facts. Therefore, everything must 120 per cent correct," he says.